Representation of Memory

What techniques do filmmakers use to represent memories in films?

Our individual memories are subjective. How does a filmmaker indicate this subjectivity (the equivalent of the first person narrative in a novel)?

Is pure subjectivity possible in film?

Do memories in film tend to resonate more with an audience when members of that audience can identify with the universal elements of those memories? What do we mean by ‘universal elements’?

Whilst viewing the following film extracts, make notes on the following questions:

What events tend to trigger memory?
How does a filmmaker indicate that what we are seeing is a memory?
Does the filmmaker engage the viewer in the memory by creating a sensory experience? How?

Band of Brothers

Citizen Kane



Paper Memories


We will do a some Formal Analysis of short films starting with The Hill (Deborah Chow)

The Hill

Find Formal Analysis instructions here

Make sure you are using accurate film language – use THIS EXCELLENT REFERENCE to help you

Here are the films you will choose from for your own Formal Analysis. Watch them all at least once before making a choice. HERE are the instructions for your individual analysis.



Memory 2.0

Beyond Memories


Porcelain Unicorn

Colour and Memories

Experimenting with Colour Correction




Music and Memories

We must also consider the effect of music on our memories
Just as a colour red may conjure connotations of danger, murder, life, prosperity. Or a smell of cut grass inspire memories of grandad’s back garden. A song or a piece of music has the power to take us back in time. Can you think of a piece of music which has this effect on you?

Memory and the power of music



Description of Film Roles 


Film Viewing: Eternal Sunshine of a Spotless Mind –

Viewing Notes